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COMPUTER | History of computing hardware

COMPUTER |  History of computing hardware

History of computing hardware


First generation (mechanical/electromechanical)CalculatorsPascal's calculatorArithmometerDifference engineQuevedo's analytical machines
Programmable devicesJacquard loomAnalytical engineIBM ASCC/Harvard Mark IHarvard Mark IIIBM SSECZ1Z2Z3
Second generation (vacuum tubes)CalculatorsAtanasoff–Berry ComputerIBM 604UNIVAC 60UNIVAC 120
Programmable devicesColossusENIACManchester Small-Scale Experimental MachineEDSACManchester Mark 1Ferranti PegasusFerranti MercuryCSIRACEDVACUNIVAC IIBM 701IBM 702IBM 650Z22
Third generation (discrete transistors and SSI, MSI, LSI integrated circuits)MainframesIBM 7090IBM 7080IBM System/360BUNCH
MinicomputerHP 2116AIBM System/32IBM System/36LINCPDP-8PDP-11
Fourth generation (VLSI integrated circuits)MinicomputerVAXIBM System i
4-bit microcomputerIntel 4004Intel 4040
8-bit microcomputerIntel 8008Intel 8080Motorola 6800Motorola 6809MOS Technology 6502Zilog Z80
16-bit microcomputerIntel 8088Zilog Z8000WDC 65816/65802
32-bit microcomputerIntel 80386PentiumMotorola 68000ARM
64-bit microcomputer[76]AlphaMIPSPA-RISCPowerPCSPARCx86-64ARMv8-A
Embedded computerIntel 8048Intel 8051
Personal computerDesktop computerHome computerLaptop computerPersonal digital assistant (PDA), Portable computerTablet PCWearable computer
Theoretical/experimentalQuantum computerChemical computerDNA computingOptical computerSpintronics based computer

Other hardware topics

Peripheral device (input/output)InputMousekeyboardjoystickimage scannerwebcamgraphics tabletmicrophone
OutputMonitorprinterloudspeaker
BothFloppy disk drivehard disk driveoptical disc drive, teleprinter
Computer busesShort rangeRS-232SCSIPCIUSB
Long range (computer networking)EthernetATMFDDI

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