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Union Home Minister announced SAMADHAN to tackle of Left Wing Extremism




The Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh on 8 May 2017 announced a new doctrine, SAMADHAN. The doctrine was announced during the Review Meeting of Left Wing Extremism affected States which was chaired by Rajnath Singh. 

The new doctrine, ‘SAMADHAN’ will have 8 pillars and they are 
 1. S- Smart Leadership
2. A- Aggressive Strategy
3. M- Motivation and Training
4. A- Actionable Intelligence
5. D- Dashboard Based KPIs (Key Performance Indicators)
6. H- Harnessing Technology
7. A- Action plan for each Theatre
8. N- No access to Financing

The doctrine was released at the time when the union government is being questioned on its agenda and plan to tackle the menace of the Maoists or left wing extremism. Questions were raised after 25 CRPF jawans were killed by Maoists in an ambush in Burkapal, Sukma district of Chhattisgarh.
Sukma Naxal Attack: Did intelligence failure lead to death of 25 CRPF Jawans?

The meeting was convened to discuss an integrated security strategy and development works in 35 worst-affected districts. The meeting was attended by the chief ministers of LWE-affected states, Union Home Secretary Rajiv Mehrishi, National Security Adviser Ajit Doval, the Director of Intelligence Bureau and state heads of police and heads of the central forces.

Below is the detail about each component of the new strategy, ‘SAMADHAN’: 

S – Smart Leadership

-  Effective leadership can lead to any desired outcome as a leader is the one who makes the impossible possible, converts failure to success and defeat to victory.
- The key properties of ‘Smart Leadership’ are Vision, Mission, Passion and Self-belief.
- A leadership full of self-confidence should have a solid vision on how he would envisage the challenges of the future and prepare his team and energise his team to a mission mode, in order to achieve his objectives. To make his team secure, disciplined and victorious, should be of paramount importance for him.
- The success stories of many police officers in India are inscribed in the minds of the common people, as to how they kept their teams alive with energy. On the Left Wing Extremism front, we also need such leadership, who despite adversity, keep their jawans full of enthusiasm and teach them only to win.
- Be it Central Forces or the district police, they will have to work under a coordinated strategy and plan. The most important thing is that the officers will have to lead from the front. Success in this regard cannot be achieved only by sitting in Delhi, Ranchi or Raipur.
- Unified Co-Ordination and Command is needed in the LWE Front. Along with Strategic Command, Unified Command is also required at the Operational and Tactical Level. Intelligence sharing is important too.
 
A - Aggressive Strategy
The government has seen good results from the Multi-Pronged Strategy against Left Wing Extremism. Statistics of violence from 2014 to 2016 indicates this. In the year 2016, 150 percent Left Wing Extremists were killed as compared to the previous year 2015, and arrests and surrender took together have seen an increase of 47 percent.
- In the year 2016, Left Wing Extremists have suffered heavy losses. They also mentioned this in their statements and documents. It is also true that Left Wing Extremists are constantly trying to take action against the security forces to increase the morale of their cadres, and undoubtedly the incident of the Burkapal of Sukma is one such example.
- Even in the year 2017, figures show that LWE incidents have decreased by 23.3 percent (377 to 289). But two to three incidents have occurred in which Security Forces have suffered heavy losses. Therefore, it is necessary that an analysis of these events is carried out, in order to assess the reasons as to why such incidents occur. The first session of the meeting will analyse the mechanism in place to combat Left Wing Extremism and other related issues.
- Today, we need to consider whether to react only after the occurrence of such events? Should our role not be Proactive?
- Learning from the old incidents, we need to bring aggression into our policy. Aggression in thinking, Aggression in strategy, Aggression in the deployment of forces, Aggression in operations, Aggression in development and Aggression in road construction.
- We will have to be cautious that extremely defensive deployment may result in a reduction of operational offensive.
- We have to consider that although the figures of the surrenders of the Left Wing Extremisms are increasing, but whether the benefit of intelligence from these surrendered LWE cadres is being derived.
- We must ensure that the States take the ownership of LWE operations and CAPFs cooperate with them fully. At the same time, the forces on the Ground level should not lack leadership. "Unity of Purpose" and "Unity of Action" are essential for the success of operations.
 
M - Motivation and Training

- The Government has superior resources, training, and technology than the Left Wing Extremists. But there is a need for better-coordinated efforts to counter the strategy of the LWE.
- Success on this front cannot be achieved only by being emotional in this regard. The right vision, right strategy, efficient use of resources, knowledge of enemy strengths and weaknesses, training of their security forces, their facilities and arrangements of tools are necessary for success. 
- In the camps where the security forces are residing, proper facilities of power, water, connectivity should be provided so that the Security Forces may remain stress-free. They should also be able to contact their family as per requirement.
- In addition to information about the place of posting, security forces should also have knowledge of the language, dialects, and traditions and culture so that they can adapt to the local conditions and earn the trust of the local people.
- Security forces must adhere to Standard Operating Procedures so that they are conscious about their own security.
 
A - Actionable Intelligence
- To develop actionable intelligence it is important that all intelligence agencies and security forces establish a good network with local people.
- Surrendered LWE cadre should be used for intelligence collection to the maximum possible.
- In comparison to Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, the Technical Intelligence Inputs in Bastar Zone of Chhattisgarh are very low and the reason for this is only 20 per cent effective connectivity in Bastar. It is only 4 per cent in a district like Sukma. There is a need to create special action plans through the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) to increase connectivity across the entire LWE affected area.
- From the point of view of Intelligence, I believe that there is a need to depute Shadow Intelligence Officers to trace the prominent targets associated with Left Wing Extremism.
- There is a need to establish specific procedures between State Police and Central Forces for the exchange and use of intelligence.
 
D-Dashboard based KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) and KRAs (Key Result Areas)
- Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and Key Result Areas (KRAs) should be determined both for the State Police and the CAPFs. This would not only help to assess the preparedness but also their performance, regular progress of its unit and individual abilities of each police officer.
 
H - Harnessing Technology 
- Technology is a Force Multiplier and thus technologies including Space, IT and Communication have brought revolutionary changes in the world. Many new techniques are also being used in dealing with law and order and the crime. On the LWE front, there is a need to use more of such latest technologies.
How to use of some Cutting-edge Technologies: -
- Currently, the use of the UAV is sub-optimal, that needs to be augmented both by numbers and by use in the right place.
- The Mini UAVs are extremely useful. Therefore, they should be procured and available in more quantities. We must try that with every battalion there must be at least one UAV / Mini UAV.
- We need to use high-resolution PTZ Cameras, GPS Tracking, Handheld Thermal Imaging, Radar, Satellite Image etc.
- Left Wing Extremists mostly use looted weapons. In order to prevent this, it would be advisable to have 
a. Trackers in Weapons
b. Biometrics in smart gun triggers.
c. Trackers should also be embedded in Shoes, BP jackets etc.
d. In addition, unique identification numbers should also be used in Gelatine and other explosive materials.
- States that do not have expertise in such state of the art technology, the Central Government can assist in this regard.
 
A - Action plan for each theatre
-  The situation of Left Wing Extremism is different in every second state that is affected by them and thus there is a need to have a different plan to fight them on multiple fronts and to create a specific action plan for each of such fronts, in order to achieve success on a systematic basis.
- There is a need to create separate short-term, medium-term, long-term strategies, whose goals and deadlines are clearly defined. The Implementation should be done on a Mission Mode defining the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for continuous monitoring and Key Result Areas (KRAs), which should also be aligned with these strategies.
 
N - No access to financing
- Economic resources play an important role in any war or any such exercise, because when money is available, only then will it be possible to buy, eat, drink and possess ammunition and weapons. Therefore, choking the financial resources of the LWE is the most basic mantra in this fight.

While explaining the meaning of the ‘SAMADHAN’, the Home Minister also cited US action to tackle the challenge of the 9/11 incident, in order to prevent it from repeating itself. He said that in the report it was stated that the 9/11 incident was not a "failure of intelligence but the failure of Imagination". Therefore, the 'SAMADHAN' which has an inbuilt potential for imagination and for that purpose the concerned people will have to work on imaginative thinking on the whole situation so that we can "Out Think" and "Out Manoeuvre" the LWE.

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